Tuesday, December 1, 2015

Rakesh Jhunjhunwala

Rakesh Jhunjhunwala (born 5 July 1960) is an Indian Investor and Trader. He is a qualified Chartered Accountant. He manages his own portfolio as a partner in his asset management firm, Rare Enterprises.
Jhunjhunwala is the chairman of Aptech Limited and Hungama Digital Media Entertainment Pvt. Ltd. and sits on the board of directors of various Indian companies such as Prime Focus Limited, Geojit BNP Paribas Financial Services Limited, Bilcare Limited, Praj Industries Limited, Provogue India Limited, Concord Biotech Limited, Innovasynth Technologies (I) Limited, Mid Day Multimedia Limited, Nagarjuna Construction Company Limited, Viceroy Hotels Limited and Tops Security Limited.
NET WORTH: USD 1.90 billion (Sep.2014)

Saturday, November 28, 2015

Entry Load - Exit Load

Entry Load: Mutual Funds charge investors an entry load of up to 2.25% to compensate for distribution costs. It is charged at the time an investor purchases the units of a scheme.

Exit Load: The commission or charge paid when an investor exits from a mutual fund. They are basically imposed to discourage withdrawals.

Wednesday, November 18, 2015

Warren Buffett

Warren Edward Buffett (born August 30, 1930) is an American business magnate, investor and philanthropist. He is the most successful investor of the 20th century. Buffett is the chairman, CEO and largest shareholder of Berkshire Hathaway, and consistently ranked among the world's wealthiest people. He was ranked as the world's wealthiest person in 2008 and as the third wealthiest in 2015. In 2012 Time named Buffett one of the world's most influential people.

Buffett is often referred to as the "Wizard of Omaha" or "Oracle of Omaha," or the "Sage of Omaha," and is noted for his adherence to value investing and for his personal frugality despite his immense wealth. Buffett is a notable philanthropist, having pledged to give away 99 percent of his fortune to philanthropic causes, primarily via the Gates Foundation. On April 11, 2012, he was diagnosed with prostate cancer, for which he successfully completed treatment in September 201. 

Saturday, November 14, 2015

Halo Effect

The halo effect is a term used in marketing to explain the bias shown by customers towards certain products because of a favorable experience with other products made by the same manufacturer or maker. Basically, the halo effect is driven by brand equity.
A classic example of the halo effect is the relationship between the Mac notebooks and iPod. When the iPod was released, there was speculation in the market place that the sales of Apple's Mac laptops would increase, because of the success of the iPod. The belief was based on the halo effect, as customers who had a great experience with the iPod would buy a Mac simply because it is made by Apple Inc.


Monday, November 9, 2015

Capital Gains Tax

At the time of Sale of any Asset, tax is liable to be paidon the gains earned on the sale of Asset. Such Gains could either be Short Term or Long Term. The Clssification for the same for Assets other than Shares and Mutual Funds are as follows,

1. Short Term Capital Gain (STCG): If the Asset is held for less than 36 Months
2. Long Term Capital Gain (LTCG): If the Asset is held for more than 36 Months

Classification for Sell of Shares or Mutual Funds:

1. Short Term Capital Gain (STCG): If the Asset is held for less than 12 Months
2. Long Term Capital Gain (LTCG): If the Asset is held for more than 12 Months

Thursday, November 5, 2015

Stocks to Invest: Maruti Suzuki

 Company: Maruti Suzuki India Limited
Type: Public
Traded as: BSE: 532500, NSE: MARUTI
Industry: Automotive
Founded: 1981
Number of employees: 12,900(2015,Sept.)
Slogan: Way of Life!

Current Models:
Omni - 1984 - Minivan
Gypsy - 1985 - SUV
WagonR - 1999 - Hatchback
Swift - 2005 - Hatchback
Grand Vitara - 2007 - Mini SUV
DZire - 2008 - Sedan
Ritz - 2009 - Hatchback
Eeco - 2009 - Hatchback    
Alto K10 - 2010 - Hatchback    
Ertiga - 2012 - Mini MPV
Alto 800 - 2012 - Hatchback
Stingray - 2013 - Hatchback
Celerio - 2014 - Hatchback
Ciaz - 2014 - Sedan

Monday, November 2, 2015

Foreign Investors

Qualified foreign investors (QFIs) can now invest directly in Indian equities. A QFI is an individual, an association or a group from a foreign country complaint with standards mandated by the Financial Action Task Force, an inter-governmental body that formulates policies to combat money laundering and terrorist financing. Foreign institutional investors (FIIs) and foreign venture capital investments do not come under the QFI category.

An individual QFI can invest up to 5 per cent of the paid-up capital of a listed company. Total investment by QFIs in a listed company cannot exceed 10per cent of its paid-up capital. Foreign investors will also be allowed to acquire equity shares by way of rights issue, bonus shares or equity shares on account of stock split, amalgamation, demerger or such corporate action.

The QFI investment limits will be over and above the ceilings set for FII and non-resident Indians under the Portfolio Investment Scheme for foreign investment in India.

Friday, October 23, 2015

Stocks to Invest: Hindustan Unilever

Traded as: BSE: 500696
Industry: Consumer goods
Founded: 1932
Headquarters: Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
Products: Foods, beverages, cleaning agents personal care products and water purifiers.
Revenue: Rs 30,170 crores (2014-15)
Net income: Rs 4,315 crores (2014-15)
No. of employees: 18,000

Hindustan Unilever's distribution covers over 2 million retail outlets across India directly and its products are available in over 6.4 million outlets in the country. As per Nielsen market research data, two out of three Indians use HUL products.

Food brands:

  • Annapurna salt and atta 
  • Bru coffee 
  • Brooke Bond (3 Roses, Taj Mahal, Taaza, Red Label) tea 
  • Kissan squashes, ketchups, juices and jams 
  • Lipton tea
  • Knorr soups & meal makers and soupy noodles 
  • Kwality Wall's frozen dessert 
  • Modern Bread 
  • Magnum

Homecare Brands: 
  • Active Wheel detergent 
  • Cif Cream Cleaner 
  • Comfort fabric softeners 
  • Domex disinfectant/toilet cleaner 
  • Rin detergents and bleach 
  • Sunlight detergent and colour care 
  • Surf Excel detergent and gentle wash 
  • Vim dishwash 
  • Magic – Water Saver
Personal Care Brands: 
  • Aviance Beauty Solutions 
  • Axe deodorant and aftershaving lotion and soap 
  • LEVER Ayush Therapy ayurvedic health care and personal care products 
  • Breeze beauty soap
  • Clear anti-dandruff hair products 
  • Clinic Plus shampoo and oil 
  • Close Up toothpaste 
  • Dove skin cleansing & hair care range: bar, lotions, creams and anti-perspirant deodorants 
  • Denim shaving products 
  • Fair & Lovely skin-lightening products 
  • Hamam 
  • Lakmé beauty products and salons 
  • Lifebuoy soaps and handwash range 
  • Liril 2000 soap 
  • Lux soap, body wash and deodorant 
  • Pears soap 
  • Pepsodent toothpaste 
  • Pond's talcs and creams 
  • Rexona soap 
  • Sunsilk shampoo 
  • Sure anti-perspirant 
  • Vaseline petroleum jelly, skin care lotions 
  • TRESemmé 
  • TIGI
Water Purifier Brand: 
  •  Pureit Water Purifier

Thursday, October 15, 2015

Yo-Yo Market

Very volatile market is known as Yo-Yo Market. It will have no distinguishing features of either an up or down market, taking on characteristics of both. Security prices in a yo-yo market will swing very high to low over a given period of time, making it difficult for buy and hold investors to profit.

Yo-yo markets can, however, be profitable environments for astute traders who are able to recognize buy and sell points and make trades before the market reverses. The name comes from the movements of a yo-yo, where security prices continually go up and down; a yo-yo market moves like its toy namesake.

Friday, October 9, 2015


In the financial world, obligation refers to an outstanding debt that a party must still repay - and if they do not pay, they default on the debt. Obligation is a facility which supports selling of shares on the next trading day after they are purchased in delivery, by allowing you to sell the shares that you have purchased in delivery even before those shares are credited to your Demat account.
Suppose, you have purchased a specific share on Monday, it will take two trading days for those shares to be credited to your demat account i.e. you will receive those shares on Wednesday evening. This is known as T+2 settlement of shares. During these two days when the settlement is still under process these shares will remain in obligation. Thus giving you the liberty to sell those shares even before the settlement cycle is completed.

Thursday, August 27, 2015

China Impact

By now we all can see the Chinese economy is falling apart. Will that affect us? Yes, What happens in China will have a massive impact on economies around the world, which means most stocks will get hit. We have to remember China is not Greece.
The China has continued to build high-end real estate in order to show GDP growth, but very few people live in these so-called ghost cities. (Same can be said about India in few years, if we realized it on time and learn from China now.)  The Chinese government has also banned short selling, temporarily halted IPOs, pressured state-owned banks to make loans to struggling businesses, allowed pension funds to invest up to 30% of their net assets in stocks, and temporarily banned company shareholders with stakes of more than 5% from selling. If these aren't desperate measures, what is?

If the Chinese stock market crashes, it means that the investors do not believe in a bright future for China's economy.  As people see their portfolios shrink, they might start selling stocks.  That may trigger more selling.  Another thing the Chinese might sell is gold.  And if gold prices fall significantly, there is a good chance panic would come to India as well because the Indians traditionally are holding onto a lot of gold.

But there are other views too, which elaborates Indian economy much stronger to survive such external stock. And we all should believe that but just trade cautiously. Having said that there is no need to get panicked either, rather it can be seen great opportunity to invest in companies which we use and hear about everyday. These are companies will be there for long time.

Thursday, August 20, 2015


Blue-chip Stock can be defined as stock of a large, well-established and financially sound company that has operated for many years. A blue-chip stock typically has a market capitalization in the billions, is generally the market leader or among the top three companies in its sector. You will invariably find that is to be a household name. Most blue-chips have a record of paying stable or rising dividends for years. The term is believed to have been derived from poker, where blue chips are the most expensive chips.

A blue-chip company may have survived several challenges and market cycles over the course of its life which leads to it being perceived as a safe investment.




Monday, August 3, 2015

Why Diversification?

Diversification is one of the central concepts in investments. Theoretically your money should not be locked in any one asset. It should be split to buy different types of assets like land, shares/mutual funds, gold, FD’s etc. The reason is no particular asset can keep delivering profits year after year consistently. There will be exceptional growth in some years and then it will be followed by sluggishness. This phenomenon is true in almost every and any assets class. So, if your investment is in a single asset, you make money only if that asset increases in value and at the same time, you also miss the chance to participate in any other asset boom. Hence, the risk you take is high.

Saturday, July 11, 2015


Quick ratio gives you an idea how easily the company can pay its current obligations – that is those bills due in the next 12 months.
The Quick Ratio is cash, marketable securities and accounts receivable divided by current liabilities (those due in the next 12 months). However, not all Current Assets are included in this ratio – excluded are doubtful accounts receivables and inventory. Basically, you are saying if all income stopped tomorrow and the company sold off its readily convertible assets, could it meet its current obligations?
A Quick Ratio of 1.00 means the company has just enough current assets to cover current obligations. Something higher than 1.00 indicates there are more current assets than current obligations.
It is important to compare companies with others in the same sector because different industries operate with ratios that may vary from one sector to another. Some industries such as utilities, for example carry much more debt than other industries and should only be compared to other utilities.
So, quick ratio is :
  • Current assets – doubtful debtors and inventory / Current liabilities.

Thursday, July 9, 2015


NCDEX - National Commodity & Derivatives Exchange Markets Limited, is the leading National Spot Exchange in India. It works with domain experts and offers trading platforms for trading in a host of commodities, both agricultural and non-agricultural to various market participants, primary producers including farmers, traders, processors etc. These trading platforms combine technological efficiency and market friendly trading features in a transparent atmosphere to make trading a rich and rewarding experience.

NCDEX e Markets Limited provides a complete solution to its customers including trade-facilitation, collateral management, logistics and supply chain management and clearing and settlement.

Tuesday, July 7, 2015


Multi Commodity Exchange of India Ltd (MCX) is an independent commodity exchange based in India. It was established in 2003 and is based in Mumbai. MCX offers futures trading in bullion, ferrous and non-ferrous metals, energy, and a number of agricultural commodities such as mentha oil, cardamom, potatoes, palm oil and others.
  • MCX is India's No. 1 commodity exchange with 83% market share in 2009
  • The exchange's main competitor is National Commodity & Derivatives Exchange Ltd.
  • Globally, MCX ranks no. 1 in silver, no. 2 in natural gas, no. 3 in crude oil and gold in futures trading.
  • The highest traded item is gold.
  • MCX has several strategic alliances with leading exchanges across the globe.
  • MCX now reaches out to about 800 cities and towns in India with the help of about 126,000 trading terminals
  • MCX COMDEX is India's first and only composite commodity futures price index.

Sunday, July 5, 2015

Current Liabilities

Current Liabilities are bills that will come due in the next 12 months. These include the company’s normal operating expenses such as salaries, utilities, and so on. Long-term debt, such as mortgages would not be included, however that portion of payments due in the next 12 months would be included.

Current liabilities are usually presented in the following order:
  1. the principal portion of notes payable that will become due within one year
  2. accounts payable
  3. the remaining current liabilities such as payroll taxes payable, income taxes payable, interest payable and other accrued expenses
The parties who are owed the current liabilities are referred to as creditors. If the creditors have a lien on company assets, they are known as secured creditors. The creditors without a lien are referred to as unsecured creditors.

The amount of current liabilities is used to determine a company's working capital (current assets minus current liabilities) and the company's current ratio.

Tuesday, June 23, 2015

Stocks to Invest: SBI

The ‘SBI (State Bank of INDIA) group’ which consists of many subsidiaries and joint ventures both from banking and non banking sectors is the largest loan provider for people and business in India. According to the SBI’s website the bank has 4713 branches in India, operates 21,000 ATMs and has 180 offices in 34 countries as on June 30th 2011. Logically, the bank holds high amount of Current Account Savings Account deposits which carries lower interest liability. This has helped the bank to give loans at the most competitive rates in India.
With many subsidiaries and a variety of financial services such as insurance, mutual funds, merchant banking, credit cards, factoring, stock broking, pension fund management etc and with spreading business in every nook and corner of India, it would be hard to beat this bank in terms of revenues. Also Government of India’s has holding of approximately 60% in the bank. SBI always stands in an advantageous position with the government being its main promoter.

Friday, June 19, 2015

Support & Resistence

Support is the price level at which demand is thought to be strong enough to prevent the price from declining further. The logic is that, when the price declines, there will be more demand for the particular share. By the time the price reaches a particular level, it is believed that demand will overcome supply and prevent the price from falling below support.
Resistance is just the opposite of ‘support’. A Resistance is the price level at which selling is thought to be strong enough to prevent the price from rising further. The logic behind the theory is that , as the price advances , sellers become more inclined to sell and buyers become less inclined to buy. By the time the price reaches a particular level it is believed that supply will overcome demand and prevent the price from rising above resistance.

Monday, June 15, 2015

Bonus Share

Bonus shares are additional shares given to the shareholders without any additional cost, based upon the number of shares that a shareholder owns. These are company's accumulated earnings which are not given out in the form of dividends, but are converted into free shares. The basic principle behind bonus shares is that the total number of shares increases with a constant ratio of number of shares held to the number of shares outstanding. For instance, if Investor A holds 200 shares of a company and a company declares 4:1 bonus, that is for every one share, he gets 4 shares for free. That is total 800 shares for free and his total holding will increase to 1000 shares.

Companies issue bonus shares to encourage retail participation and increase their equity base. When price per share of a company is high, it becomes difficult for new investors to buy shares of that particular company. Increase in the number of shares reduces the price per share. But the overall capital remains the same even if bonus shares are declared.

Wednesday, June 10, 2015

Chart Analysis

  • Chart analysis is the technique of using patterns formed on a chart to get an idea about the price movement of a share.
  • There are two types of chart patterns: reversal and continuation.
  • A continuation pattern suggests that the prior trend will continue upon completion of the pattern.
  • A reversal pattern suggests that the prior trend will reverse upon completion of the pattern.

Monday, June 8, 2015


A rule stating that in order to find the number of years required to double your money at a given interest rate, you divide the compound return into 72. The result is the approximate number of years that it will take for your investment to double.
For example, if you want to know how long it will take to double your money at 12% interest, divide 12 into 72 and you get six years.

Friday, June 5, 2015

How to Avoid Claim Rejection of Term Insurance Plan

1) Provide correct details in the health declaration as hiding past history of diseases and essential health related information could lead to claim rejection.
2) Stop agent from filling wrong details or better still fill the form yourself.
3) Don't opt for the single premium plan even though a discount is offered as thanks to the uncertainties of life you may or may not need to pay the premium for the whole term. The premium doesn't increase each year.
4) Inform the nominee you have appointed about the term policy you have purchased.
5) Don't fall for mis selling offers of insurance agents that you will get back the entire amount you have invested, so the cost is zero. The money will be back upon death and the inflation cost as well as opportunity cost of money should be looked at from 15-20 years perspective.

Monday, June 1, 2015

Stocks to Invest : L&T Ltd

The company is well poised to capitalise on the upcoming business opportunities, particularly in the infrastructure, power and defence sectors, which are likely to benefit from the government's thrust.

The management expects about Rs 150000 crore of orders in the next couple of quarters to come for bidding. These include orders from airports, metros, dedicated freight corridors, urban infrastructure, power generation, including nuclear power plants, T&D, etc. 

Larsen & Tourbo
Target Price: 2123

Wednesday, May 27, 2015

What is 52-Week High/Low?

Prices of commodities, securities and stocks fluctuate frequently, recording highest and lowest figures at different points of time in the market. A figure recorded as the highest/lowest price of the security, bond or stock over the period of past 52 weeks is generally referred to as its 52-week high/ low.

It is an important parameter for investors (as they compare the current trading price of the stocks and bonds to the highest/lowest prices they have reached in the past 52 weeks) in making investment decisions. It also plays an important role in determination of the predicted future prices of the stock.

Monday, May 25, 2015

PEG Ratio

Popularized by the legendary Peter Lynch, It’s a  ratio that will help you look at future earnings growth  You calculate the PEG by taking the P/E and dividing it by the projected growth in earnings.
  • PEG = (P/E) / (projected growth in earnings)
For example, a stock with a P/E of 20 and projected earning growth next year of 10% would have a PEG of 20 / 10 = 2.

If you have a stock with a low P/E. Since the stock is has a low P/E, you start to wonder why the stock has a low P/E. Is it that the stock market does not like the stock? Or is it that the stock market has overlooked a stock that is actually fundamentally very strong and of good value?
To find that answer, PEG ratio will help. If the PEG ratio is big (or close to the P/E ratio), you can understand that this is probably because the “projected growth earnings” are low. This is the kind of stock that the stock market thinks is of not much value.
On the other hand, if the PEG ratio is small (or very small as compared to the P/E ratio, then you know that it is a valuable stock) you know that the projected earnings must be high. You know that this is the kind of fundamentally strong stock that the market has overlooked for some reason.


Saturday, May 23, 2015

What is IPO

The initial sale of stock by a private company to the public which turns it into a public company. IPOs are typically offered by smaller, younger companies who are seeking to expand through the infusion of capital from the IPO. It can also be done by large privately owned companies looking to become publicly traded.
Most IPOs use the services of an underwriting firm, which helps it determine the type of security to issue. The underwriting firm also helps select the price and timing for the IPO.
The initial day of trading as well as the near term can see huge swings in price.  For small private investors, this makes IPOs tough to predict and highly risky for small investors. Most companies with an IPOs are going through a transitory growth period, which adds to the  uncertainty regarding their future values.

Wednesday, May 20, 2015

Online Trading

Online trading is nothing but trading via the Internet with the help of trading software provided by the broker. But for many of us this trading platform can be very confusing. You can also transfer funds online from your bank account to your share trading account with the click of a button.
The advantages of using online trading are:
  • Fully automated trading process which is broker independent.
  • Access to advanced trading tools to perform technical analysis
  • Investors have direct control over their trading portfolio.
  • Ability to trade multiple markets and/or products. You can trade in BSE / NSE.
  • Real-time market data.
  • Faster trade execution.
  • Easy to operate and manage account
  • No geographical limits i.e. you can be anywhere in the world you can invest in Indian share market through online trading platforms.

Monday, May 18, 2015

Types of Price Gaps

Common gaps: Common gaps are ‘common’ and ‘uneventful’. If a Gap is formed when the markets are moving in a narrow range, it is called a Common Gap.

Breakaway Gaps: A “breakaway” gap ends a consolidation pattern and happens as prices break out. Often, they would be accompanied by huge volumes. Break-out Gaps are generally not filled for a long time, i.e. in the case of an uptrend, the price does not fall back to wipe off the gains. They may be filled as and when the prices retrace after a substantial up move. If the breakout happens to be a downtrend, the prices may not rise soon to wipe off the loss.

Runaway Gaps:Runaway gaps are best described as gaps that are caused by increased interest in the stock. For runaway gaps to the upside, it usually represents traders who did not get in during the initial move of the up trend and while waiting for a retracement in price, decided it was not going to happen. Increased buying interest happens all of a sudden, and the price gaps above the previous day’s close. This type of runaway gap represents an almost panic state in traders. Also, a good uptrend can have runaway gaps caused by significant news events that cause new interest in the stock. Runaway gaps can also happen in downtrends. This usually represents increased liquidation of that stock by traders and buyers who are standing on the sidelines. These can become very serious as those who are holding onto the stock will eventually panic and sell – but sell to whom? The price has to continue to drop and gap down to find buyers. So, in either case, runaway gaps form as a result of panic trading.

Exhaustion Gap: An “exhaustion” gap occurs at the end of a price move. If there have been two or more gaps before it, then this kind of gap should be regarded very skeptically. A genuine “exhaustion” gap is filled within a few days to a week. It is generally not easy to distinguish between the Runaway and Exhaustion Gaps. Experience in reading charts will help in due course. The best clue available is that Exhaustion Gaps are not the first Gaps in the chart, i.e. they follow the Runaway Gaps and usually occur when the runaway Gap is nearing completion. Exhaustion Gaps do not indicate whether the trend will reverse, they only call for a halt in the price movement.






Friday, May 15, 2015


Forex is a commonly used abbreviation for "foreign exchange," and it is typically used to describe trading in the foreign exchange market by investors and speculators. For example, imagine a situation where the U.S. dollar is expected to weaken in value relative to the euro. A forex trader in this situation will sell dollars and buy euros. If the euro strengthens, the purchasing power to buy dollars has now increased. The trader can now buy back more dollars than they had to begin with, making a profit. It is similar to stock trading. A stock trader will buy a stock if they think its price will rise in the future and sell a stock if they think its price will fall in the future. Similarly, a forex trader will buy a currency pair if they expect its exchange rate will rise in the future and sell a currency pair if they expect its exchange rate will fall in the future.

Wednesday, May 13, 2015

World's Currencies

Afghanistan - Afghani
Albania - Lek
Algeria - Dinar
Andorra - Euro
Angola - New Kwanza
Antigua and Barbuda - East Caribbean dollar
Argentina - Peso
Armenia - Dram
Australia - Australian dollar
Austria - Euro (formerly schilling)
Azerbaijan - Manat
Bahamas - Bahamian dollar
Bahrain - Bahrain dinar
Bangladesh - Taka
Barbados - Barbados dollar
Belarus - Belorussian ruble
Belgium - Euro (formerly Belgian franc)
Belize - Belize dollar
Benin - CFA Franc
Bhutan - Ngultrum
Bolivia - Boliviano
Bosnia and Herzegovina - Marka
Botswana - Pula
Brazil - Real
Brunei - Brunei dollar
Bulgaria - Lev
Burkina Faso - CFA Franc
Burundi - Burundi franc
Cambodia - Riel
Cameroon - CFA Franc
Canada - Canadian dollar
Cape Verde - Cape Verdean escudo
Central African Republic - CFA Franc
Chad - CFA Franc
Chile - Chilean Peso
China - Yuan/Renminbi
Colombia - Colombian Peso
Comoros - Franc
Congo, Democratic Republic of the - Congolese franc
Congo, Republic of - CFA Franc
Costa Rica - Colón
Côte d'Ivoire - CFA Franc
Croatia - Kuna
Cuba - Cuban Peso
Cyprus - Cyprus pound
Czech Republic - Koruna
Denmark - Krone
Djibouti - Djibouti franc
Dominica - East Caribbean dollar
Dominican Republic - Dominican Peso
East Timor - U.S. dollar
Ecuador - U.S. dollar
Egypt - Egyptian pound
El Salvador - Colón; U.S. dollar
Equatorial Guinea - CFA Franc
Eritrea - Nakfa
Estonia - Kroon
Ethiopia - Birr
Fiji - Fiji dollar
Finland - Euro (formerly markka)
France - Euro (formerly French franc)
Gabon - CFA Franc
Gambia - Dalasi
Georgia - Lari
Germany - Euro (formerly Deutsche mark)
Ghana - Cedi
Greece - Euro (formerly drachma)
Grenada - East Caribbean dollar
Guatemala - Quetzal
Guinea - Guinean franc
Guinea-Bissau - CFA Franc
Guyana - Guyanese dollar
Haiti - Gourde
Honduras - Lempira
Hungary - Forint
Iceland - Icelandic króna
India - Rupee
Indonesia - Rupiah
Iran - Rial
Iraq - U.S. dollar
Ireland - Euro (formerly Irish pound [punt])
Israel - Shekel
Italy - Euro (formerly lira)
Jamaica - Jamaican dollar
Japan - Yen
Jordan - Jordanian dinar
Kazakhstan - Tenge
Kenya - Kenya shilling
Kiribati - Australian dollar
Korea, North - Won
Korea, South - Won
Kuwait - Kuwaiti dinar
Kyrgyzstan - Som
Laos - New Kip
Latvia - Lats
Lebanon - Lebanese pound
Lesotho - Maluti
Liberia - Liberian dollar
Libya - Libyan dinar
Liechtenstein - Swiss franc
Lithuania - Litas
Luxembourg - Euro (formerly Luxembourg franc)
Macedonia - Denar
Madagascar - Malagasy franc
Malawi - Kwacha
Malaysia - Ringgit
Maldives - RufiyaMaliCFA Franc
Malta - Euro
Mauritania - Ouguiya
Mauritius - Mauritian rupee
Mexico - Mexican peso
Moldova - Leu
Monaco - Euro
Mongolia - TugrikMontenegroEuro
Morocco - Dirham
Mozambique - Metical
Myanmar - Kyat
Namibia - Namibian dollar
Nauru - Australian dollar
Nepal - Nepalese rupee
Netherlands - Euro (formerly guilder)
New Zealand - New Zealand dollar
Nicaragua - Gold cordoba
Niger - CFA Franc
Nigeria - Naira
Norway - Norwegian krone
Oman - Omani rial
Pakistan - Pakistan rupee
Palau - U.S. dollar used
Palestinian State (proposed) - New Israeli shekels, Jordanian dinars, U.S. dollars
Panama - balboa; U.S. dollar
Papua New Guinea - Kina
Paraguay - Guaraní
Peru - Nuevo sol (1991)
Philippines - Peso
Poland - Zloty
Portugal - Euro (formerly escudo)
Qatar - Qatari riyal
Romania - Leu
Russia - Ruble
Rwanda - Rwanda franc
St. Kitts and Nevis - East Caribbean dollar
St. Lucia - East Caribbean dollar
St. Vincent and the Grenadines - East Caribbean dollar
Samoa - Tala
San MarinoEuro
São Tomé and Príncipe - Dobra
Saudi Arabia - Riyal
Senegal - CFA FrancSerbiaYugoslav new dinar. In Kosovo both the euro and the Yugoslav dinar are legal
Seychelles - Seychelles rupee
Sierra Leone - Leone
Singapore - Singapore dollar
Slovakia - Koruna
Slovenia - Slovenian tolar; euro
Solomon Islands - Solomon Islands dollar
Somalia - Somali shilling
South Africa - Rand
Spain - Euro (formerly peseta)
Sri Lanka - Sri Lanka rupee
Sudan - Dinar
Suriname - Surinamese dollar
Swaziland - Lilangeni
Sweden - Krona
Switzerland - Swiss franc
Syria - Syrian pound
Taiwan - Taiwan dollar
Tajikistan - somoni
Tanzania - Tanzanian shilling
Thailand - baht
Togo - CFA Franc
Tonga - Pa'anga
Trinidad and Tobago - Trinidad and Tobago dollar
Tunisia - Tunisian dinar
Turkey - Turkish lira (YTL)
Turkmenistan - Manat
Tuvalu - Australian dollar
Uganda - Ugandan new shilling
Ukraine - Hryvna
United Arab Emirates - U.A.E. dirham
United Kingdom - Pound sterling (£)
United States - dollar
Uruguay - Uruguay peso
Uzbekistan - Uzbekistani sum
Vanuatu - Vatu
Vatican City - Euro
Venezuela - Bolivar
Vietnam - Dong
Western Sahara (proposed state) - Tala
Yemen - Rial
Zambia - Kwacha
Zimbabwe - Zimbabwean dollar

Friday, May 8, 2015

Technical Analysis: Price GAP

A gap is an area on a price chart in which there were no trades. It is easy to see gaps if you take candle stick charts. Let us try to understand gaps in another way. The fluctuations in stock prices are coherent in nature. That means that the price rises or falls gradually.  Thus, in rising scrip, if on one day the low was Rs 100 and the high was Rs 135, on the next day the low would be Rs 130 and the high Rs 140. Here, the low for the next day falls within the high-low range of the previous day. But suppose for the second day, the low was Rs 145 and the high Rs 150. Then, the low for the next day has fallen above the previous day High-Low range, or it was higher than the previous day’s high. So, when one draws bar charts showing High-Lows every day, there would be a discontinuity, termed as a ‘Gap’ in technical theory. An interesting feature of Price gaps is that it gets filled within a short amount of time. That is, the price would come back to fill the price gap of Rs 140 – Rs145, where there was no trade in the previous days.
In simple terms-a gap occurs when the current bar opens above the high or below the low of the previous bar. On a price chart, a space appears between the bars indicating the gap.


Wednesday, May 6, 2015

Debt Funds

Debt funds are mutual funds that invest in fixed income securities like bonds and treasury bills. Gilt fund, monthly income plans, short term plans, liquid funds, and fixed maturity plans are some of the investment options in debt funds. Apart from these categories, debt funds include various funds investing in short term, medium term and long term bonds.
Debt funds are preferred by individuals who are not willing to invest in a highly volatile equity market. A debt fund provides a steady but low income relative to equity. It is comparatively less volatile.

Monday, April 20, 2015

Fixed Maturity Plan

FIXED MATURITY PLANS (FMPs) are similar to bank fixed deposit in that they offer a fixed return for a specific tenure. The difference is that they are mutual fund schemes. These closed-ended debt schemes are structured in such a way that the duration of the debt papers that form part of the scheme’s portfolio are aligned with the tenure of the overall scheme. The drawback, or rather a constraint, is liquidity as an investor cannot withdraw funds before the due date. The biggest attraction of FMPs was the tax arbitrage they enjoyed over bank deposits. 

For Example – If an individual invested in a 13 month bank deposit offering a rate of 9% pa, he would earn Rs. 9,750 over a period of 13 months and the effective post tax return (assuming the individual falls in the 30% tax bracket) would be Rs. 6,825. If the same amount was invested in an FMP of the same rate (9% pa), his earning would have Rs. 9,750, same as a bank FD but the effective post tax return would have been Rs. 9,632. Thus, as you can seen, in the case of an FD, the tax payable would be Rs. 2,925 and for an FMP it was merely Rs. 118, offering investors a clear saving of Rs. 2,807 in terms of tax outgo.